The Grand Expansion of the Al-Haram Grand Mosque

Client      : Hijjas Kasturi Associates Sdn.
Location  : Makkah, Saudi Arabia
Year        : 2008

            EAG acted as environmental consultants to evaluate both the organic and permeable massing and layout of the complex and its individual features. The increase shaded areas throughout April – October- through proposed massing and canopy structures, layers and terraces that self shade each other were evaluated and assessed. Larger openings on facades should be inward-looking where outward-facing openings are reduced.  Phase 1 is a reflection of the principle of ordering the layout in order to facilitate movement, prayers, ablution and   to channel airflow for pilgrim comfort between the buildings. The inclined terrain offered viewing potentials to towards the mosque, whose layout are ‘broken into various parcels’ and in-between the musolla structures   themselves which   create self-shading mechanisms     were assessed.  Sun path analytical tools was used to  analyze and guide the  overshadowing effects of the Musolla structures, At the individual structures, simulation tools were used to achieve reduction of exposed areas through shading from the building geometry and electricity generation through solar panels. Modern interpretations of mashrabiyyas are used to provide a high degree of shading while allowing visual link and air to go through the facades.